Computer programs make use of three fundamental mechanisms: elementary operations
(e.g., arithmetic operations), logical flow control (branching), and external memory, which
can be written to and read from in the course of computation (Von Neumann, 1945).
In human cognition, the process that shares the most similarity to algorithmic operation
is known as “working memory.” While the mechanisms of working memory remain some-
what obscure at the level of neurophysiology, the verbal definition is understood to mean
a capacity for short-term storage of information and its rule-based manipulation .