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Anatomical pathology is the study of organs and tissues to determine the causes and effects of particular diseases. An anatomical pathologist’s findings are fundamental to medical diagnosis, patient management and research. Anatomical pathology involves macroscopic pathology, histopathology (the combination of these two usually being referred to as “surgical” pathology), cytopathology and morbid anatomy. Histopathology is concerned with the microscopic examination of tissues, taken either as biopsy samples or resection specimens. Tissues are assessed macroscopically, and material is taken for microscopic examination for the purpose of diagnosis, prognosis and directing appropriate treatment. Cytopathology is the study of individual cells aspirated or obtained from body fluids or tissues, including exfoliative cytology, to detect abnormalities. Morbid anatomy is the use of the autopsy to determine cause of death and investigate both the associated and “incidental” (unrelated to cause of death) effects of drugs, toxins and disease processes on bodily organs. Anatomical pathologists work with almost all medical specialties, including surgeons and general practitioners, using techniques available in the anatomical pathology laboratory to provide information and advice essential to clinical practic.
Anaesthesia refers to the practice of administering
medications either by injection or by inhalation that block the feeling of pain
and other sensations, or that produce a deep state of unconsciousness that
eliminates all sensations, which allows medical and surgical procedures to be
undertaken without causing undue distress or discomfort.
Relief of pain and suffering is central to the practice of anaesthesia. Specialist anaesthetists are fully qualified medical doctors who hold a degree in medicine and spend at least two years working in the hospital system before completing a further five years (or equivalent) of accredited training in anaesthesia culminating in being awarded a diploma of fellowship of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA), which can be recognised by the initials FANZCA after their name. General Practitioners (GP) are able to offer anaesthesia services in rural areas where there is no ongoing specialist cover available. It means that a general practitioner is able to offer this service to their community to avoid patients having to travel to larger regional centres to access surgery. GP anaesthesia training is administered by the Joint Consultative Committee on Anaesthesia (JCCA).
GPs can practice with a sub-specialty; this allows them to focus on a particular area of medical interest. See below for further information on the training requirements for a sub-specialty in Anaesthesia .