Zaqueu Machado en Communications and journalism, Teachers, Idiomas Professor de Inglês 12/1/2018 · 3 min de lectura · +200

Polite forms in English

Polite forms in English

                                    P∂'laιt S∂'saι∂tι

As formas de expressar cortesia em inglês são muito semelhantes às do português. A única diferença que encontramos é o uso um pouco mais do que o habitual em português das expressões "please" e "thank you", além disso ao contrário do português a palavra "please" aparece no fim do pedido precedida por vírgula tais como: Could you give me a hand, please? ou Can I join your table, please?. Devemos salientar que could é usado num contexto mais formal que can. Como "Could I....?"  ou "Could You....?" como em  "Could I use your phone?" ou "Could you show me some ID". Podemos constatar que nos exemplos anteriores que recorremos aos chamados "modal verbs" para expressar cortesia.

Os modal verbs são os chamados verbos auxiliares e ao contrário de outros verbos auxiliares eles nunca são usados separadamente, em virtude de só terem qualquer significado verbal quando acompanhados de um outro verbo chamado de "action verb" que dará significado à frase, além disso, eles não formam a 3ª pessoa do singular acrescentando um "s" e são sempre seguidos pelo infinitivo do verbo "You must see..." ou "You should pay", têm também a função de expressar desejos e opiniões do orador. Os mais usados são "Can/Could", "May/Might", "Will/Would" por expressarem os sentimentos e intenções do orador.

Examples: Can/could I have another helping of rice? or  May/Might I borrow your car? or  Will you come / would you like to come to the cinema tonight?

Existem outros verbos auxiliares tais como "Must / Have to" ou "Should / Ought" cujos significados são mais para dar ordens.

HOW TO BEHAVE IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS


IN A RESTAURANT

Could I have a light? / Could I have some more, please?

Could you bring me the menu?

Could you bring me / Can I have the bill, please?

Could you pass me the salt.

AT SOMEONE'S HOUSE

Is it all right if I smoke?

Would you like me to open the wine?

Could I use your phone?

I'll do the washing up.

IN A SHOP

Can I help you?

How much does it cost?

Can I pay by cheque / credit card or in cash?

Can I try it on? Have you got a bigger/smaller size/ a different colour?

Would you like a (carrier) bag?

IN THE STREET / ON THE TRAIN

Can I help You? / Can you tell me the time?

Could you tell me the way to the bus station?

Could I get past, please?

Is it all right if I open the window?

Quando interropemos uma pessoa com o intuito de perguntar algo usamos:

Excuse me,

Can you tell me how to get to the airport, please?

Do you accept credit card?

Is this the right way for the post office?

Would you mind keeping an eye on my luggage?

I wonder if you could move your suitcase a little.

HELPING PEOPLE

I'll do that for you if you like.

I'll help you with that.

I'll give you a lift.

ASK IF YOU CAN DO SOMETHING

it's okay if I....?

Do you mind if I....?

Would you mind closing the door?

Is it all right if we.....?

Excuse me, can I....?

ASK ANOTHER PERSON TO DO SOMETHING

Could you possibly turn the radio down,please?

Will you....?

Would you mind closing the door?

Can you show me how to use this washing machine?

SAY YES

Let's meet at 8 o'cloock? Ok, fine.

Can you wait a few minutes. Sure, no problem.

Have you got a light? Yes, here you are.

Are you angry with me? Of course I'm not.

Could I borrow your dictionary? Yes, of course / Help yourself or  Go ahead.

SAY NO

Do you think you could possibly lend me two or three pounds?

I wish I could but,/ I'm sorry, but, /I'm afraid not

I'm afraid I can't come to your party nesxt week.

Do you want to play tennis? No, not really.

INTRODUCTIONS

Várias maneiras de se apresentar pessoas que não se conhecem:

Joe do you know Peter?

Rose, this my friend Gabriel.

Sally, I don't think you've met Robert.

I don't think you two know each other, do you?

Can / May I introduce Peter Brown (more formal).

Quando as pessoas são apresentadas elas dizem Hello or How do you do? (more formal). Notar que ao contrário de How are you? a expressão How do you do? não é uma pergunta, por esse fato ambas as pessoa respondem How do you do?

GREETINGS

Meet someone for the first time:

How do you do?

The reply Can be the same How do you do? or Pleased / Nice to meet you.

or Hello. Nice to meet you. (Shake hands).

When you meet someone you know

Hi. Hello. How are you? How's it going? How are you doing?

Informal: How's it going.

Formal: Good morning / afternoon / evening

FAREWELLS: "Goodbye"

Someone you've just met for the first time:

Nice to meet you.

If you plan to see the person again:

See you later. / See you soon.

Formal- Good bye / Good morning / afternoon / evening / night

informal- Cheers / Bye 

ASKING ABOUT HEALTH ETC

Formal- How are you?

Informal- How are things? / How's it going?

ANSWERS

 Formal- Very well, thank you. And you? / Fine, thank you.

Informal- Not too bad / Ok / So-so / All right / (It) Could be worse.

THANKS

Formal- Thank you very much. / Thank you.

Here's your pen. Oh, thank you.

I'll post those letters for you. Oh, thank you. That's very kind of you.

Informal- Thanks. / Thanks a lot.

I'll answer that. Oh, thanks a lot

For someone's hospitality:

Thank you very much for inviting me. It's been a lovely evening.

Thank you very much for everything. You've been very kind.

REPLY

Formal- Not at all. / You're welcome. / That's (quite) all right.

Informal- That's ok.  

Will /Would é usado somente para perguntar às outras pessoas para fazerem algo.

Can / Could pode ser usado em ambos os tipos de pedido.

Modal verbs são seguidos por um infinitivo sem "to", mas: Do you mind....?  Would you mind...? são sempre seguidos por um gerund "ing" ou por "if"e como têm como  significado "Is it a problem for you?" se a resposta for "Yes" dizemos "No, not at all" ou "Of course not".


See you.

Zaqueu Machado

Private English Teacher contact 71986882627 Salvador Bahia